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What was the first concentration camp in Berlin?

by | Mar 7, 2024 | Concentration Camp

Want to explore sachsenhausen concentration camp? Come and join us on the Original Berlin Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp Memorial Tour.

When discussing the history of concentration camps, it is important to acknowledge the significant role played by the first concentration camp that emerged in Berlin.

The Beginnings of the Berlin Concentration Camp

The first concentration camp in Berlin was known as Sachsenhausen. It was established by the Third Reich under Adolf Hitler’s regime in the summer of 1936, located just north of Berlin in the Oranienburg district. Initially, the camp was intended to serve as a model and training site for other concentration camps that followed later.

Construction and Purpose

The construction of Sachsenhausen began in 1936, and it was designed to incarcerate various groups of individuals, including political prisoners, intellectuals, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and members of particular religious and racial groups. Additionally, Sachsenhausen served as a prototype for implementing and refining punishment methods, camp administration, and prisoner control techniques.

Living Conditions in Sachsenhausen

Life within Sachsenhausen was marked by extreme deprivation, harsh discipline, and regular acts of violence. Prisoners were subjected to forced labor, inadequate nutrition, and brutal treatment by SS guards. Many fell victim to diseases, malnutrition, and exhaustion.

The Significance of Sachsenhausen

Sachsenhausen played a significant role in the history of the Holocaust and served as a training ground for concentration camp guards and administrators who would later play key roles in other established camps. The experience gained from Sachsenhausen directly influenced the development and operations of subsequent camps like Auschwitz and Dachau.

Notable Aspects of Sachsenhausen

Sachsenhausen had several notable aspects that made it distinct:

  • The T-shaped layout: The camp was divided into various compounds, with the ‘T’ shape facilitating surveillance and control since guards could oversee multiple areas from a central tower.
  • Medical experiments: Like other concentration camps, Sachsenhausen was a site of unethical medical experiments conducted on prisoners without their consent.
  • Hidden factories: The camp had several hidden factories where prisoners were forced to work under brutal conditions to manufacture goods for the Nazi war effort.

Survivor Stories

Several survivors of Sachsenhausen have shared their stories, shedding light on the atrocities and the strength of the human spirit. Their testimonies serve as important reminders of the horrors perpetrated within the camp walls and the resilience of those who endured.

Remembering Sachsenhausen Today

Sachsenhausen serves as a memorial and museum today, providing visitors with an opportunity to learn about the history of the camp and pay tribute to the victims. The preserved buildings and exhibits offer a somber reminder of the atrocities committed during this dark period of history.

Visiting Sachsenhausen Memorial

If you plan to visit the Sachsenhausen Memorial and Museum, here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • Opening hours: Check the official website for the most up-to-date information on opening hours and any restrictions.
  • Guided tours: Consider joining a guided tour to gain a deeper understanding of the site’s historical significance.
  • Respectful behavior: Remember to be respectful during your visit. Maintain silence in areas designated for reflection and pay homage to those who lost their lives.


The first concentration camp in Berlin, Sachsenhausen, served as a prototype and training site for subsequent camps during the Third Reich era. Through Sachsenhausen, we are reminded of the unimaginable suffering inflicted upon prisoners and the importance of educating ourselves about this dark chapter in history to prevent such atrocities from happening again.

Visit Sachsenhausen today to pay tribute to the victims and ensure that their memory lives on.

Want to explore sachsenhausen concentration camp? Come and join us on the Original Berlin Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp Memorial Tour.


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What was the first concentration camp in Berlin?

Mar 7, 2024